Types of laboratory tests to determine HPV

The development of papillomavirus is considered very dangerous for the human body. The earlier the pathology is detected, the lighter the consequences. The test will help to finally determine HPV. To do this, laboratories currently offer sufficient methods that recognize not only the presence of the pathogen itself, but also its type. This makes it easier for specialists to choose the right treatment tactics.

Briefly about papillomavirus and its consequences

Among gynecological diseases, HPV is quite common. Usually those who enter an active sex life become infected. Most types of infection do not cause serious problems and are self-limiting, especially with a strong immune system.

Attention! The most dangerous are varieties that belong to the group of high oncogenic risk. Such forms can persist for a long time in the body and mutate into malignant neoplasms.

There are three degrees of oncogenicity of the pathogen. It has been shown that one patient can be a carrier of several types of papilloma virus at the same time.

In the presence of papillomavirus infection, the whole body suffers, but especially the reproductive system. Pathology affects the lower and upper genital organs and the anus. If the disease is not treated in time, the following consequences arise:

  1. Cancer of the vagina, cervix, vulva, penis.
  2. cervical carcinoma.
  3. Verruciform dysplasia.
  4. erosion.

It is not always the infection that causes such serious complications. But with the appearance of papillomas and warts on the body, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible. The infection is not transmitted from the mother or father genetically. But the chances of having children in this case are slim. Often, the presence of the pathogen provokes a miscarriage.

Analysis for the determination of human papillomavirus in the body

The virus does not manifest itself for a long time. Thanks to its analysis, it is easy to recognize this disease even at an early stage and choose an effective treatment. This helps to anticipate potential threats to the patient's health.


To recognize HPV, advanced fluid tests have been specially developed. A wide variety of them are used as prophylaxis or to obtain the necessary information about the disease. In the laboratory, the following types of research are considered in the request:

Method Biomaterials Characteristic
PCR Saliva; urine; discharge from the genitals; amniotic fluid. Determining the DNA of the pathogen and its amount in the blood when there are no symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis is made in people with HRC. Extended typing is possible.
quantum 21 A smear is taken from the site of infection. Reveal the nature of the genotype, its quantitative components.
Amplification test Scraping from the vagina. Indicates the concentration of infection in the blood, the degree of oncological danger.
Cytology (Papanicolaou test) Smears from the urethra and urogenital tract. Recognizes developmental pathology classes. This method has a high probability of the indicator being wrong.
Histology Biopsy (a piece of organ tissue). It makes it possible to separate the condyloma from the tumor.
human papilloma virus swab

Among other methods, a blood test for HPV antibodies is used. During the incubation period, the viral load is small, so the indicator is not accurate, which requires a second examination.

Several countries have effective screening and treatment programs in place.

Three types are currently available:

  1. Testing for high oncogenic papillomavirus varieties.
  2. Pap test and liquid cytology.
  3. Application of acetic acid on visual inspection.

Important to know! Thanks to the screening program, cervical oncology is determined at an early stage. This increases the chances of complete healing.

Indications for carrying out

Checking for viruses is available to everyone, even if there are no typical symptoms. Some consider it necessary as a preventive measure or to prevent the growth and development of oncological processes. Experts recommend examination in the following cases:

  1. The presence of papillomas on the skin and mucous membranes.
  2. To confirm dubious cytological results.
  3. Pathological discharge from the vagina.
  4. Suspicion in oncology women with dysplasia.
  5. Patient's personal concerns.
  6. Violation of urination.
  7. Planning pregnancy, infertility.

An in-depth study of this pathology prevents the development of the body's susceptibility to other infections, such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV).

research material

Epithelial tissue serves as the main biomaterial in diagnostic procedures. To do this, take a smear for HPV. Very rarely, amniotic fluid, blood, urine, vaginal discharge are studied.

If histology is ordered, a biopsy is taken. The process of obtaining it is painful, because with the help of special tools the affected tissue is pinched.

Preparation for analysis

human papillomavirus test

Patients with experience in such a procedure note that it does not hurt, the material is taken without discomfort. But preparation requires a serious approach. In doing so, the following must be taken into account:

  1. You only need to donate blood on an empty stomach.
  2. Limit the use of drugs and alcohol.
  3. Do not use cosmetics and tampons.
  4. Just drink water.
  5. Reduces emotional and physical stress on the body.
  6. Stopping sex for a while.

You need to prepare laboratory activities in advance. On the day of the smear, it is recommended to wash the genitals. You must refrain from urinating 2 hours before the procedure. Compliance with these rules helps to get more accurate indicators. Otherwise, the test will show a false negative result or vice versa.

Performing procedures on women

Getting a referral for an HPV test, many don't know what it is and how it is done in women. You can find out the details of why this or that procedure is necessary from the attending physician or on the information site.

To perform a papillomavirus test in women, as in men, scrapings are often done. With the help of brushes used in gynecology, the necessary biomaterial is taken from the mucous membranes of the genital organs and sent to the laboratory. You can start diagnosing after 5 days after the end of menstruation.

The clinical laboratory monitors whether all conditions of the diagnostic procedure have been observed correctly. For this purpose, KVM or material retrieval control is used. This test shows whether the number of epithelia studied corresponds to the norm.

Biomaterial sampling from men

a man looking through a microscope studying a test for hpv

Many have an idea of how biomaterials are taken for HPV testing in women. But not everyone knows how this process occurs in men. The fence is made of urethra, so it is often called the urethra. So that no microorganisms get into the material under study, the intimate zone toilet is first carried out. After that, the genital organs should be treated with sterile saline and dried.

The doctor takes a general smear for flora from the urethra using a special probe. The resulting material is placed on a glass slide and examined under a microscope. This technology allows you to determine only the presence of bacteria and infection.

More revealing smears for latent infection. The principle of implementation is the same as in the first case. Only the material obtained is placed in a special solution and submitted to the laboratory. There it is studied and the DNA of the pathogen is determined.

Terms and stages of the study

As soon as signs of weakened immunity appear, papillomas or condylomas appear on the skin, the body needs to be examined. HPV diagnostics has several stages:

  1. Visual examination by a doctor: for women - a gynecologist, for men - a urologist.
  2. Donate blood.
  3. Do a biopsy.
  4. Histology.
  5. Cytology.
  6. PCR.

During a clinical examination, the doctor can see external signs of pathology. For a deeper examination, he prescribes laboratory diagnostic methods.

Each clinic sets its own deadline for getting results.

Many clinics report results quickly, and their list prices are much higher than others. Cost does not always affect quality. Cheap labs also have good reviews.

Outlining the results

manifestations of the human papillomavirus

Patients who have undergone the necessary examinations want to know as soon as possible whether there is cause for concern or whether it is possible to live in peace. With the general interpretation of the results, socialization often occurs on the Internet. They are usually issued in tabular form. For the convenience of specialists, colored markers are used. But it is important not to rush to conclusions, because the attending physician must make an accurate diagnosis based on the general history and the data obtained.

Important to know! A good result is one in which all samples are negative. This means that the patient does not have the possibility of developing any complications, especially the transition of the pathology to a malignant neoplasm. In this case, therapy has a favorable prognosis.

The situation looks much more complicated with positive indicators. These patients are considered high risk. In the future, additional diagnostics will be required, which is important in determining the stage of the disease and excluding oncology. Patients need constant medical supervision.

Other diagnostic methods

When a disease is detected, instrumental diagnostic methods are sometimes used. Often they are used as a supplement to see the changes taking place in the body. For this purpose, designate:

  1. Colposcopy. With the help of a special tool, the cervix is examined. Thanks to the multiplier increase, doctors can detect warts that have already appeared.
  2. Endoscopy.
  3. Pelvic ultrasound.
  4. MRI.

This diagnostic method is often used when the disease progresses and affects the organs and systems. In terms of cost, they are slightly lower than laboratory tests.

According to experts, the diagnosis of the presence of papillomavirus in young people should be regular. This is especially true for those who are at risk. This approach reduces the chances of getting cancer.